Timber was a material very commonly used in the architecture of the farmhouses. It was used not only to close the outer façade but also to separate the different quarters from each other inside the house. To join panels to each other, the same technique as in the choir of Santa Maria was used: the tongue and groove joint.
In Zumarraga today there are about 65 farms spread across the four neighbourhoods that make up the town. Some of them are veritable archives of past building techniques. Depending on the type of technique used, one can speak of one type of farm or another.
Many ancient farms in Gipuzkoa combined stone and timber on their façades. While the ground floor was built of stone, the first floor was built of timber.
Others were built using a timber-based façade with the gaps between them being filled with stone, mortar and lime.
The ground floor could be shared between people and animals, while the upper floor was only inhabited by people.
These rural buildings changed as the centuries passed.
The production needs at each moment and the quest for greater comfort meant that changes had to be incorporated into these buildings.
The first floor of the farms was the granary of the home. It was here that the products harvested by the farmers used to be stored.
Timber was not only a cost-effective solution, it was a material that helped to ventilate the storage area.
Wheat was the staple food. Apples were used to make a natural beverage, cider. In the 17th century, maize, also known as Indian corn, began to be consumed.